Contextual & Theoretical Studies

Crit Result

Because Chris likes to be nosey XD

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Ross Johnston

Workshop 3 Animation Bleach

For this I deiced to chose Bleach, this is the one Manga (Animation) that I don’t loath. I find this Manga very amusing and entertaining. The story begins with Ichigo Kurosaki, a teenager that has the ability to see spirits, when out for a walk he comes across a very evil sprit called Hallow. To do this he is given powers by the Soul Reaper. This is a very short brief of Bleach as I am behind on Bleach since there is over 300 episodes.

Ichigo Kurosaki again is a teenager that lives in Japan. To his this character is a mis-guided teen with problems, he distances himself from others apart from his sister Yuzu Kurosaki.

The theme of this Animation is very dark. It starts of light with with the love and the family, but when he is given powers my Soul Reaper, it become very dark with the ghost and the reapers. I love this animation and the the theme changes through out of the 312 episodes.

The narrative though out the different episodes is the same, Ichigo is growing and manipulating his powers to defeat the evil sprits. Through out his journey he finds different human enemies to battle and defeat.

I wish i could tell you more about this but as I have only seen the first series Its not much help



A clash between Games and Narrative

Whilst looking though the internet with my best friend Google, I stumbled upon an article about hoe games can clash with the narrative of the game. The article talk about a lot of different aspects of both areas, so really interesting quotes I found

There’s a conflict between interactivity and storytelling: Most people imagine there’s a spectrum between conventional written stories on one side and total interactivity on the other. But I believe that what you really have are two safe havens separated by a pit of hell that can absorb endless amounts of time, skill, and resources.

-Walter Freitag, game designer.

the fundamental qualities that make a good game have remained unchanged and elusive. Consumers still flock to buy original, addictive, and fun games, leaving many flashy products with million-dollar budgets languishing in the $9.99 bin. These costly failures demonstrate that the consumer does not desire a cinematic experience, but rather a quality gaming experience.

-Sid Meier, game designer.

One of my favorite

The most popular comment on computer games is to say that they are non-linear / multicursal, meaning that they differ from narratives because they can be different sequences. But it does seem reasonable to claim that narratives are sequences evoking a sense of destiny, of events that have to lead to each other. Roland Barthes says that narrative is the language of destiny. “the mainspring of narrative is … what comes after being read in narrative as what is caused by.”

Source unknown, Came from the same article BUT doesn’t say weither  Walter Freitag or Sid Meier wrote it.

I am basically proposing that computer games should be viewed as a dualism of two layers. The program and the material.

Source of this amazing article : http://www.jesperjuul.net/text/clash_between_game_and_narrative.html


The Collapse and Reconstitution of the Cinematic Narrative: Interactivity vs. Immersion in Game Worlds, Otto Lehto wonders what a game is and comes with the following observation: “The game narrative needs to be ‘written’ (played) before it can be ‘read’ (interpreted). Games provide fluidity of interactive immersion: the interface as the place of the merger between the player and the game.

Proof of Concept in 2006 pre kinetic immersion

Kinetic immersion (taking inspiration from the previous video)


What is Immersion?

Suspension of disbelief is the literary term for a reader’s decision to accept what is presented in a story as a real event. It is the first step in the formation of people’s emotional attachment to fictional characters in novels, movies, and video games. Immersion is a technique of lowering a person’s need to suspend their disbelief by removing the text, the seat, or the keyboard, placing a person into the scene itself. Immersion is the removal of the barriers between people and their entertainment, until it is as real to us as everyday life.

Star Trek: The Next Generation made history in its very first episode when it introduced what has become a beautiful dream of the entertainment industry: the Holodeck. The Holodeck is a computer simulation of any situation that a person can imagine. With only a bit of programming, a world can be generated that resembles any thing or place, and mimics anyone, all in an empty 30-foot cube. Although the Holodeck, an invention that creates a perfect sense of immersion, was made through narration and film, many people could not help but think that its creation would someday be inevitable. Indeed, one of Star Trek’s most compelling characteristics is that it made an unreal world seem nearly within reach. And so an entire generation of video game designers and engineers came of age with the desire to create a perfectly immersive environment– one in which a person would not be able to distinguish virtual reality from reality. Luckily, the crucial yardstick to test the success of such a venture has existed for almost 50 years. This metric is called the Turing Test.

Invented in 1950 by the British mathematician and computer scientist Alan Turing, Turing’s Test is a challenge. The test involves a person sitting at a computer and asking questions of two individuals sitting at computers in different rooms: one is another person, the other is a computer. If at the end of a period of time, say five minutes, the investigator can not determine which respondent is human and which is machine, then the computer can be said to be intelligent (Britannica). This test applies to more than just automated chat programs, however. Any medium’s ability to immerse the player through intelligent reactions, visuals, or sound is subjected to the same standards. How real is it? How immersive?



http://illumin.usc.edu/article.php?articleID=103 accessed 06/03/2011

Addicted to Games

Summery of Powerpoint

‘addiction designates a process whereby a behaviour, that can function both to produce pleasure and to provide escape from internal discomfort, is employed in a pattern characterised by (1) recurrent failure to control the behaviour (powerlessness) and (2) continuation of the behaviour despite significant negative consequences (unmanageability).

GOODMAN, A. Addiction: definition and implications British Journal of Addiction Volume 85, Issue 11, pages 1403–1408, November 1990

In the powerpoint I as well as everyone else in the course quoted a section about Immersion and addicted  to games I wrote:

When thinking of immersion, I always think of people playing constantly …, I think Narrative is very important… On the other hand some games do not have narrative and people still get immersed. Take for example MineCraft … People will continue to play the game, some people up to 20 hours a day. Administrators and moderators have to be on the server 24 hours a day…This is the true meaning of immersion and how addictive the modern world has become.

I wrote this about immersion and mention it in the Addicted to games because true addiction relays on immersion.

According to the powerpoint which i say is true, addiction relays on different aspects such as Ethics, Narrative, Design and Psychological.

The most addicted game on the market is Call of Duty an RPGMMO and also world of warcraft an MMO.





The Frame of Reference Manga and Anime

1. Manga doesn’t have as much influence in the western world than it does in Japan.

2. Manga varies from the Japanese to the Western.

3. First cartoons where cave paintings.

4. Manga was a radical challenge to western comics.

5. Williams has written a brilliant Animation Survival Guide which lists the rules of Animation.

6. All animation contains elements of un-realism.

7. The western world has made out that Manga is full of violence and porn.

8. The principle design techniques are used in Manga .

9. in the modern times it is drawn on a computer then put into a 3D program.

10. Gilles Poitras give Manga a list of sub categories of different genres like in the Sci-fi- he list Mecha Stories, Cyberpunk, War etc

Favourite Film

My favourite film is The Dark Knight (2008), directed by Christopher Nolan, starring Christian Bale as Bruce Wayne/Batman and also Heath Ledger as The Joker. This film is based on DC Comics Cape Crusader, Batman. The film is based around two main characters, Batman and The Joker.

The villain in this story is The Joker trying to kill Batman however Batman is considered the anti-hero in this story, people fear him but on the other hand the public need him. Throughout the film it is a cat and mouse game between the characters Batman battling with The Joker and The Joker amusing himself at Batman’s attempts.

A problem the director had to overcome while filming was the use of camera angles. In the making of the film he made sure that when filming scenes with The Joker, he broke the 180 degree rule. When a person is on the left of the camera in one shot then right of the camera in another shot, this breaks an imaginary line causing confusion. I think this shows the disorder of The Joker, the director is trying to break the rules of the camera showing how The Joker doesn’t follow the rules. The director has also used this at the end of the movie, where The Joker is hanging upside down, the camera is flipped and looks like he is defying gravity, like he is an unstoppable force.

The lighting in this film is very important, it sets the mood for the whole film. When shooting scenes with Batman and The Joker the director tries to fit the characters personality. When shooting scenes with both characters, the lighting is de-saturated. This makes both The Joker and Batman the focus. The lighting makes the The Joker look vintage, almost like The Joker is the only person in the world. The lighting is a crucial aspect of the film.

Throughout this film it is non stop action. Some people may say it is overwhelming, but both the writers and the directors have kept true to the comics. The director has tried to keep you on the end of the seat throughout the entire film, from the bank robbery at the start right the way through out the film until the end credits.

In post production the director and the editor worked together to create a perfect film. The sharp transition when filming with The Joker creates the mood of disarray. This is perfect because it shows the the madness of The Jokers mind. Whereas when filming with the female cast, the transitions are more soft, this gives the audience the feeling that she is innocent and loving. Using these two different transitions the movie has a balance to it. In post production the editor has also used excellent special effects to make us believe that this is a reality, from batman jumping off buildings and gliding through the streets of Hong Kong, to The Joker hanging and falling to his death.